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How to Build a Concrete Patio



How to Build a Concrete Patio

A concrete slab patio is difficult to beat. Because it is flat and smooth, it is suitable for a wide range of furnishings and outdoor activities. It is simple to clean and does not leave grit on your shoes that can be tracked inside the house (like gravel patios). Unlike paver and stone patios, it is virtually weed-proof and does not shift with seasonal fluctuations. Perhaps most importantly, if you create the patio yourself, you can save money on construction expenditures.

Unsurprisingly, the most challenging part of building with concrete is the concrete itself. Once the concrete is mixed, there is no going back because it hardens. Preparation is the key to success: make sure the forms are well-secured and that all of your tools are ready to go. After the concrete has been poured and screeded (the initial step of leveling and smoothing the surface with a long 2×4 board), it is critical to allow the concrete to cure before beginning the final finishing. When it comes to finishing, avoid overworking the concrete. Too much moisture in the air degrades the completed surface.

When to Build a Concrete Patio

Concrete can be poured in a wide variety of temperatures, although for beginners, it’s better to wait for dry, warm weather. A concrete patio finish can be ruined by rain, while a concrete slab can be ruined by cold temperatures. In extremely hot and dry weather, use a shade to keep the concrete out of direct sunlight and sprinkle the concrete with water as needed to prevent early curing, which weakens the completed product.

Codes and Regulations

Large concrete slabs in most regions require approval from the city’s building and/or zoning departments. Slabs are permanent buildings that may be subject to zoning laws. Several design factors, such as the thicknesses of the gravel foundation and the slab, the type of concrete and its internal reinforcing, and the requirement for a moisture barrier under the slab, may be governed by local building codes. For project-specific recommendations, contact your city’s building department.

What You’ll Need

Equipment / Tools

  • Tape measure
  • Hammer
  • Mason’s line (braided nylon string)
  • Line level
  • Carpenter’s level
  • Straight 2×4 board
  • Shovel
  • Plate compactor
  • Steel rake
  • Wood saw
  • Drill and screwdriver bit
  • Concrete mixer
  • Wheelbarrow
  • Mason’s trowel
  • Darby
  • Concrete groover
  • Concrete edger
  • Wood float
  • Medium-bristle push broom (optional)


  • Stakes
  • Compatible gravel
  • 2×4 lumber
  • 3 1/2-inch and 2-inch deck screws
  • Vegetable oil
  • Bagged concrete (or ready-mix)
  • Plastic sheeting
  • Concrete sealer (optional)
  • 1/2-inch x 3 1/2-inch expansion joint strips (as needed)
  • Spray adhesive or concrete nails (as needed)


  1. Set Up the Guide Strings
    Using stakes and mason’s lines, create guide strings to depict the patio’s edges. Begin by driving two pegs into each corner of the patio space, about 1 foot beyond the perimeter of the patio. To make a square or rectangular arrangement, tie mason’s lines between opposing stakes. The patio corners are marked by the spots where the strings connect. At least 6 inches above the ground, the strings should be. 
  2. Square the String Layout
    Measure diagonally across opposing corners where the strings intersect to ensure the string layout is square. The layout is square if the two diagonal dimensions are equal. If the measures are not equal, modify the stake places as needed until they are. 
  3. Slope the Strings
    Slope the strings at 1/8 inch every foot so that the patio slopes away from the house. For example, if the patio is 8 feet long from end to end, it should slope downward by 1 inch throughout its length. Mark the stakes 1 inch (in this case) down from the strings at the low end of the patio, then move the strings to the marks. 
  4. Excavate the Patio Area
    Remove any plants from the patio space, leaving the borders 6 inches beyond the sides of the patio (to make room for setting the concrete form). Excavate the soil to an 8-inch depth. As you work, take measurements down from the layout lines to determine the depth of the excavation. It’s normally easier to dig out the sides to full depth, than dig out the inner region, making sure the entire area is level with a long, straight 2×4 and level (from side to side; it will slope in the other direction). Using a rented plate compactor, compact the earth thoroughly. 
  5. Install the Gravel Base
    2 inches of compactible gravel should be used to fill the excavated area. Smooth the gravel with a rake, then compact it well using a plate compactor. Add another 2 inches of gravel and level it out. Use the 2×4 with a carpenter’s level on top to ensure the gravel is level side-to-side and slopes end-to-end to follow the strings. Compact the second gravel layer.
  6. Build the Concrete Form
    Use 2×4 lumber and 3 1/2-inch screws to build a concrete form. The form’s internal dimensions must match the final measurements of the concrete slab. Place the shape on the gravel bed. As with the string layout, measure the diagonals to ensure the form is square. 
  7. Secure the Form
    Drive wood posts around the perimeter of the form, about 2 feet apart. Stakes should be around 3 1/2 inches above the ground. Lift the form 4 inches off the ground and fasten it to the stakes with 2-inch deck screws driven through the stakes and into the form boards. The form’s top should be about 1/2 inch higher than the tops of the stakes. Maintain a consistent distance between the form and the guiding strings. After securing the form at all stakes, remove the guiding strings and stakes.
  8. Pour the Concrete
    Coat the internal surfaces of the form with vegetable oil to prevent the concrete from sticking. In a rented concrete mixer, mix fiber-reinforced concrete (or as specified by building code) according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Transfer the mixed concrete to a wheelbarrow, then dump it in piles inside the shape. Fill out the form by distributing the concrete using a shovel. Repeat until the form is completely filled. 
  9. Screed the Concrete
    Screed the top of the concrete with the long, straight 2×4 board. Place the board on top of both sides of the form and saw back and forth while pulling the board backward. As needed, use a shovel to remove extra concrete or to pour concrete to fill up low sections so that the top of the concrete is flat and level. If the slab is longer than 8 feet in either dimension, use a 2×4 and a mason’s trowel to cut control joints at 8-foot intervals. Position the board across the form, then slice down into the concrete along the board’s border to separate the gravel within and create a control joint (to control cracking). For more Information New City Paradise 
  10. Finish the Concrete
    Allow the concrete to cure until the “bleed water” (moisture that rises to the surface after screeding) has gone away before smoothing the surface with a darby. Allow the bleed water to evaporate once more. If you use control joints, go over each one with a groover tool and a 2×4 to ensure straight lines. With an edger tool, round over the slab’s edges. Using a wood float, smooth away any surface flaws. 
  11. Cover and Cure the Patio Slab
    The plastic covering should be used to cover the concrete. Lift the plastic and sprinkle the concrete with water each day to keep it moist while curing. Otherwise, cover the concrete. This practice should be repeated every one to two weeks. 
  12. Complete the Job
    Take the plastic from the concrete. Remove all stakes from the ground and disassemble the wood shape. Fill the space surrounding the slab with dirt or other material. Seal the concrete with concrete sealer if required, following the manufacturer’s instructions.

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The Best Offers on Black Friday Microwaves:



The Best Offers on Black Friday Microwaves:

If you need to heat something up fast or don’t want to turn on the oven, a Back Friday Microwave is a common and useful appliance to have on hand in most kitchens. There is a wide range of microwaves available on the market, each with its own unique combination of size, power, and cooking capabilities, making it suitable for everything from making popcorn to preparing an entire meal.

Purchase Advice for the Microwave Oven:

People who took pride in their culinary creations used to look down their noses at black friday microwave ovens. Consider the domain of introverts who like to reheat canned beans or prepare a meal for one while cuddling with their 17 cats.

The most advanced models can now prepare entire meals, from pizza to roast chicken, in a matter of minutes. They are no longer looked down upon, and are instead regarded as a wonderful asset to individuals with little kitchen space.

Understanding how a microwave oven functions will help you find the best model for your needs before making the investment.

Exactly how do they function?

Radio waves at a frequency of 2500 megahertz are known as microwaves. Food containing water, fat, or sugar exposed to microwaves absorbs these waves and converts them to atomic motion, or heat. If your equipment uses microwaves, keep any metal out of the interior at all costs because it will just reflect the waves back at you. Most ceramics, glasses, and plastics are safe to use.

Typical ovens use hot air to cook the food, which results in a primarily outer-cooked meal. Because microwaves “excite” the food, it cooks uniformly. Black Friday Microwaves are more energy-efficient than conventional ovens because they just heat the food and not the oven.

Microwave Oven Varieties:

In general, microwaves can be divided into four types:

Microwave only: As far as choices go, “microwave only” is the bare minimum. An ordinary black friday microwave oven can be used to reheat, defrost, steam, and heat food. Perfect for people who frequently consume microwaveable foods like soup, vegetables, and the like.

Microwave with a grill: The air inside a conventional microwave oven is at room temperature, preventing the formation of a crust on the food you’re cooking. This is why many people choose a microwave oven that also includes a grill. All the conveniences of a regular microwave, plus the added versatility of grilling, are on display in a microwave with a grill. Among the many possible uses for this is grilling meat or fish, or even preheating a pizza. If you aren’t much of a chef or don’t have much room for a conventional oven, this is an excellent option.

Combi Microwave: The grill function, microwave, convection oven, and sometimes even steam feature are all included in the combi microwave option, making it more like a tiny oven than a microwave. Another fantastic choice for those who have to make do with a tiny kitchen because of their apartment or house.

Integrated Microwave: The integrated microwave has a sleek, modern appearance so that it blends in with the rest of your kitchen’s appliances. They come in standard sizes and are usually equipped with front handles for convenience.

Big and Strong.

combination microwave grill

The smallest microwaves have a 17-liter capacity, and the largest have a 32-liter oven. We recommend not going with anything less than a 27L model if you have a large family and anticipate needing to cook a fair amount of food. The larger turntable in this size microwave means you can fit multiple plates at once, or even a whole roast, in there.

Microwaves’ power output is often expressed in Watts. Appliances typically run between 800W and 1100W of power. Don’t forget that a higher wattage microwave will cook your food more quickly in the microwave.

Extra Qualities to Keep an Eye Out For:

You’ve decided what kind of microwave oven you want, how big you want it to be, and how it operates; now it’s time to think about what else you can look for to make sure you get the best one possible.

The more bells and whistles a microwave has, the higher the price tag. However, unless you are in dire straits financially, you should not allow that to be a deal breaker for you. The proper features could be optimal and time saving depending on your lifestyle and the manner you make food. Take a short look at the most important things to watch out for below:

Automatic Microwaves: The defrost function of certain microwaves is automatic, meaning that the appliance calculates how long the food needs to be cooked based on its weight rather than a generic estimate. Similarly, defrosting food is a problem that can be solved mechanically.

chaos defrost: If you frequently prepare meals in advance and store them in the freezer for later reheating, then a microwave with a chaos defrost feature could be a lifesaver. It rapidly defrosts your food by sending out random pulses of energy.

Children, microwaves: Perfect for families with young children, microwaves with a child lock prevent curious fingers from reaching the controls or mistakenly activating a cooking cycle.

Control Panel: Look for a microwave with a nice control panel that allows you to modify the settings without having to pause the cooking process if you prefer to give precise directions.

Door that Drops Down: While most microwaves have doors that swing outward on hinges, more and more models are coming out with drop-down doors. After you’re done with the kitchen, it’s the perfect spot to set down any hot dishes.

Fortunately: the interior of a microwave oven is much less difficult to scrub than that of a traditional oven. Catalytic or pyrolytic liners are available for high-end microwaves. Because of their self-cleaning feature, these microwaves are less likely to become clogged with grime over time.

Multiple Cooking: Changing the microwave’s power level in the middle of a cooking cycle is possible because of the applicant’s ability to be programmed for multiple cooking sequences. This means it can do things like thaw the food before cooking it.

Pre-set Programmes: You may take the guesswork out of cooking by using the pre-set programmes. The microwave has a menu of pre-set programmes that you can select from to complete your task. Services, including preparing common dishes, reheating, and defrosting,g will be provided.

Sensors cooking: Modern high-end microwaves are equipped with humidity and moisture sensors that allow for precise, accurate cooking regardless of the food’s moisture content or the ambient humidity. Then, they’ll fiddle with the heat and timer until you’re satisfied.

Turbo Reheat: is a nice feature for folks who eat a lot of soup or bean-based products because it speeds up the re-heating process.

In any case, before making a purchase, you should investigate your options to determine which microwave best meets your demands.jel

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Home Improvement

Advice on how to take care of sterling silver jewelry





The quality of the materials used and the manufacturing techniques for sterling silver jewelry are subject to high international standards.


Sterling silver


Pure silver is very malleable, delicate, and susceptible to injury. In order for silver to be used in jewelry, it is mixed with other metals to create a far more durable material. Sterling silver is one of the most common alloys. This alloy contains roughly 7.5% copper and 9.25% silver. Numerous investigations conducted by silversmiths have demonstrated that copper is the ideal companion for silver, as copper increases the hardness and durability of silver without altering its hue. The addition of a modest amount of copper to silver has a minor impact on the value of the metal. Intriguingly, the price of Silver Jewelry Online is affected by the work required to produce the item, the complexity of the designs, and the craftsmanship of the craftsperson.


Superior stamps


The online collection of sterling silver jewelry is marked with a quality certification. The stamp confirms that the decorations are made of metal. Generally, quality stamps are placed in plain view on clasps or tags. In some situations, though, the artisans conceal the marks within the motifs. Included among quality stamps are sterling, sterling silver, steer, and.925.


What causes this jewelry to become tarnished?


Similarly known as oxidation, tarnish is the result of Sulphur or oxygen coming into contact with sterling silver. Sometimes tarnished silver appears duller and darker in hue. All of the sterling silver fashion jewelry is of superior quality. Some patterns are oxidized on purpose to create depth in filigree or to accent certain elements on an ornament.


How should sterling silver jewelry be stored?


Moisture and oxygen in the ambient atmosphere damage sterling silver jewelry. Therefore, it is vital to preserve jewelry correctly to limit the oxidation process. Here are some storage suggestions: –


  • Place the ornaments in places with low relative humidity.
  • Put them in a ziploc bag organizer or airtight container.
  • Include a silica packet or a bit of chalk in this storage bag.
  • Closures and clasps should be unhooked to prevent moisture buildup.
  • How do you wear sterling silver jewelry?


An interesting truth is that frequent use of jewelry helps prevent tarnishing. The natural oils of the wearer’s skin really assist in protecting and cleaning sterling silver. However, there are certain behaviors that might cause jewelry to lose its brilliance quickly. Before swimming, exercising, showering, cleaning, tanning, applying hairspray or other hair products, applying makeup or lotion, sterling silver jewelry must be removed.


How do you clean sterling silver jewelry?


Accordingly My Amazon Ebc every piece of jewelry must be cleaned frequently. Generally, polishing the jewelry is the most effective method for cleaning them. Use a nonabrasive piece of cloth to minimize scratching, replace the cleaning cloth after a few days, avoid cleaning parts that have been purposefully oxidized, and never rub in a circular motion; instead, follow the grain of the silver.


Carefully maintaining sterling silver jewelry is essential.


With proper maintenance, the jewelry promises to provide years of fun and pleasure. Simple actions, such as paying attention to how these ornaments are maintained, worn, and cleaned, can significantly extend their lifespan. Remember to store these ornaments in an airtight, dry location. Frequently wear the jewelry, but always remove it before coming into contact with water or moisture. When attending a party or festival, it is generally advisable to remove jewelry along with the attire. Polishing sterling silver jewelry before it becomes excessively tarnished might reduce the amount of labor required. Be sure to use the appropriate cleaning cloth and stroke pattern when cleaning. These easy steps might help maintain the elegance of popular jewelry for years. Explore the Fashion Jewelry Online store to add the most striking patterns and high-quality pieces to your wardrobe.

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Home Improvement

How to Dodge Overwintering Pests?



One of the most annoying things to encounter is overwintering pests. This type of pest doesn’t usually go inside your home when the temperature isn’t low. These insects prefer to live outside during mild temperatures but they tend to seek shelter during the winter season. They can also be found in oak trees, under fallen leaves, and some other plant materials. Pretty annoying to encounter and also risk our health,These pests spend some time inside as the winter season passes. Meanwhile, they lay their eggs during the winter season and worse, their larvae will hatch during the spring. Consequently in some cases, It can become a major concern if not handled immediately. 

There are several ways to avoid and prevent dealing with overwintering pests. Here is a list of you can be able to dodge overwintering pests:


In general, they are the one that deals with pests almost every day. They have the capabilities to exterminate and have the solution to prevent overwintering pests. If you encounter these pests for the first time and do not have an idea what to do, it is preferred to call a professional to handle it for you and they may also give you some tips and advice along the way. In addition, always schedule a regular inspection from your local pest control professionals. 


To stop these insects from getting inside, if you see signs and hints that your walls may have some cracks that can be an entrance for these pests, seal it off immediately. You can use plasters for the holes in your walls. Also check if your doors, windows, and pipes have holes in them that can be a possible entrance for these pests. 

By reacting quickly, you have already prevented these pests from invading your home. Blocking every possible entrance for these creatures is one way of having to deal with them during winter. 


If in case these pests already got in, you have to resort to using pesticides. This is one of the best and fastest solutions to get rid of insects that are invading your house. Chemical pest control like repellants and insecticide is useful for this scenario. Locate where these pests are lurking inside your home, and after figuring it out use the chemicals to exterminate all the pests. Just be careful about using pesticides as they also can affect your health. 

After spreading the chemicals, always do a routine check on the areas that previously has pests so you can apply chemicals from time to time if they show up again. If you do not know how to use pesticides, you can always call your local pest control just like the Termite pest control in York, PA which you can call if you need help using chemicals against pests.


If there’s trash, throw it out as soon as possible. Pests are usually lurking in areas that have a closed wall, dirty areas, or areas that have a lot of stuff in it. Having these areas thoroughly swept, those pests that are living in your house rent-free will have a lesser spot to hide. 

Cleaning spots that can be a potential home for pests is a great way of keeping them from invading. By maintaining a clean home, you will lessen the probability of being invaded.


Exterior cleaning are also a part of preventing and controlling pests to get inside your home. These are the stuff to keep in mind:

  • Since they usually live beneath fallen leaves, use a rake to clean up fallen leaves near your house. 
  • Check if there are broken windows, or other entry points that these insects can get in. 
  • Applying repellants all over the exterior of your house will remove the things that attract pests. 
  • Also, clean the sewers and other areas outside of your house that can have build-up debris. 
  • Get rid of unnecessary things from your house that can cause debris to build up and create a spot where these creatures can use as a temporary shelter.


If there is tall grass nearby, trim down the grass and have it thoroughly inspected. These pests usually come from areas that have vegetation since they are not a fan of low-temperature weather. Just like fallen leaves, if there is an uncontrolled vegetation, always have it clean as soon as possible. 

It is best to have your lawn trimmed out and backyard before winter to avoid pests lurking out in those areas that will probably get inside of your home during the cold.

Prevention and control 

The best solution to this problem is an assertive action which is to prevent and control these insects. One thing, prevention is always better than cure. So to avoid having to deal with their presence, always make sure that: 

  1. Every entrance thathas potential openings is sealed off entirely. 
  2. Utilities that have openings must be sealed off completely. 
  3. When using pesticides, make sure to have the proper and complete gear to avoid risking your health. 

And if these things still get severe and can no longer be controlled, do not hesitate to call for help from professional pest control.


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