Learn to use the Metasploit Framework
Metasploit is a security tool that exploits vulnerabilities in software. It is not just a tool that is needed for penetration testers and security consultants to use, but it’s also useful for those who want to learn about the different tools and techniques that are available in order to be able to achieve their desired goals.
Metasploit is a software framework (that is) used primarily to break into remote applications. Metasploit is known by the name of the exploits and exploits are designed to extract data from the target.
Brief history of Metasploit
According to Wikipedia (2018), the initial author of Metasploit was renowned network security expert and open source programmer, H.D. Moore. Moore created the Metasploit Project in 2003 as an effort to make available to the public a complete tool to carry out pentesting tasks in a semi-automated way, given that until then – although individual tools existed to carry out specific tasks – frameworks of complete exploitation, they were all commercial.
It was not until 2009 that the company Rapid 7 entered the scene, which acquired the project with the commitment to maintain the Framework version as an open source project, an issue that has been fulfilled to this day.
During this period, Rapid 7 developed other versions based on the Metasploit Framework, such as the Community, Express and Professional versions; announcing in June 2018 the end of the Express version in favor of the Professional version.
The Metasploit Framework, or MSF, is made up of modules of various kinds that can store information in a Postgres database. This database is included with the MSF and the first time the setup program is started, it creates the required table structure. User interaction with the MSF is done through proprietary command line interfaces such as msfconsole and msfcli. However, the Community, Professional and the extinct Express versions are accessed through a web interface. Additionally, there is an open source graphical interface that integrates with the MSF called Armitage. The company that develops Armitage, Fast and easy hacking, also provides a paid version called Cobalt Strike that, among other things, automates certain pentesting tasks. The following figure shows the components of Metasploit.
MSF modules can be of different types:
Auxiliary modules are used to perform specific tasks such as: scanning targets, detecting services, performing enumeration, performing key attacks, etc. Exploit modules, on the other hand, as their name suggests, are used to exploit vulnerabilities on remote systems. A peculiarity of the exploits is that they require a payload to be assigned (in Spanish, load).
A payload is a special type of module that contains code that performs a specific task on a particular platform. Said payload is usually executed on the victim host as the final phase of an exploit, after the vulnerability has been exploited. A payload can do things like open a shell, add a user, capture keys, etc.
A post type module is used to perform post-exploitation tasks; that is, once we have already managed to exploit a vulnerability and have an open session on the victim system. Some examples of tasks that could be done with a post module: listing directories, uploading/downloading files, setting up a backdoor, extracting hashes, etc.
Finally, noop modules, also called no-op modules, are an advanced concept that I don’t intend to explain in detail here, but briefly they are used to keep the size of a payload consistent.
The msfconsole interface allows you to easily interact with the MSF through a prompt that accepts commands. To see the help of commands we write help or the question mark (?). The following table shows the main commands available in the msfconsole.
An important element of the MSF is the ability to have workspaces that allow separate information regarding the audited hosts of different clients. The workspace command allows you to view, create, delete, and toggle workspaces.
One command to highlight is db_nmap, which is nothing more than the good old NMAP port scanner, ported to MSF to save the information collected about the audited hosts in the active workspace tables.
Exploring The Usefulness Of LLDP-MED: Leveraging Link Layer Discovery Protocol Beyond Networking Basics
Introduction to LLDP-MED
LLDP-MED is an extension to the Link Layer Discovery Protocol (LLDP) that allows for media-specific configuration and management of networked devices. The LLDP-MED specification was developed by the IEEE in order to provide a standard method for managing VoIP devices on a network. LLDP-MED builds upon the existing LLDP specification and adds new TLVs (Type-Length-Values) that are specific to VoIP applications.
In order to understand how LLDP-MED works, it is first necessary to understand the basics of LLDP. LLDP is a layer 2 protocol that is used for discovering neighboring devices on a network and advertising device capabilities. Devices that support LLDP will periodically send out multicast packets containing information about themselves. This information includes the device’s MAC address, IP address, and other capabilities.
When a device receives an LLDP packet from a neighboring device, it will store this information in a database. This database can then be used by system administrators in order to manage the network. For example, if a new VoIP phone is added to the network, the administrator can use the information stored in the database to automatically configure the phone with the correct settings.
LLDP-MED extends this functionality by adding support for media-specific configuration and management. This allows administrators to manage not only networking settings, but also multimedia settings such as audio codecs and video resolutions. In addition, LLDP-MED adds support
The Benefits of LLDP-MED
LLDP-MED (Link Layer Discovery Protocol – Media Endpoint Discovery) is an IEEE 802.1 standard that helps network devices to automatically configure themselves in accordance with the needs of different types of media applications. It does this by exchanging information about their capabilities with other LLDP-MED devices on the network. This allows for a much more efficient and streamlined network deployment, as well as providing greater flexibility in how the network can be used.
Some of the key benefits of LLDP-MED include:
- Ease of deployment and configuration – LLDP-MED automates many of the tasks associated with setting up and configuring a network, making it much easier and quicker to get up and running.
- Improved security – By automating the process of configuring networking devices, LLDP-MED reduces the potential for human error which can lead to security vulnerabilities.
- Greater flexibility – LLDP-MED provides greater flexibility in how a network can be deployed and used, as it is not limited by pre-configured settings. This allows for more customised networks that can better meet the needs of specific applications.
- Enhanced compatibility – The use of LLDP-MED ensures compatibility between different types of equipment from different vendors, as all devices adhere to the same standards. This eliminates the need for time-consuming manual configuration when adding new devices to an existing network.
The Uses of LLDP-MED
In many cases, LLDP-MED can be used to automatically configure and optimize IP telephony devices such as VoIP phones, IP video cameras, and wireless access points. LLDP-MED can also be used to manage energy-efficient Ethernet (EEE) settings on networked devices. In addition, LLDP-MED can be used to monitor and troubleshoot IP networks.
How LLDP-MED Works
LLDP-MED is an extension to the Link Layer Discovery Protocol (LLDP) that allows for media-specific configuration of network devices. The LLDP-MED specification was developed by the IEEE 802.1 Audio/Video Bridging (AVB) Task Group and defines a set of TLVs (type-length values) that can be used to convey information about the capabilities and settings of audio/video endpoints.
In order to understand how LLDP-MED works, it is first necessary to understand the basics of LLDP. LLDP is a Layer 2 protocol that allows network devices to discovery each other and exchange information about their capabilities. Each device maintains a database of information about the other devices on the network, which is constantly updated as new devices are added or removed. This database can be used by network administrators to troubleshoot connectivity issues, or simply to get an overview of the network topology.
The LLDP-MED extension adds a number of new TLVs that can be used to convey information about audio/video endpoints. These TLVs include things like support for Power over Ethernet (PoE), VLAN settings, and QoS parameters. By including this information in the database maintained by LLDP, AVB capable switches can automatically configure themselves to provide the appropriate level of service for audio/video traffic.
LLDP-MED also defines a set of events that can trigger updates to the database. For example, if
For those not familiar with LLDP-MED, it is an extension to the Link Layer Discovery Protocol (LLDP) that allows for media-specific configuration of network elements. This is useful in VoIP deployments, as it allows for QoS markings to be propagated from the switch to the IP phone. It can also be used for other types of data, such as video or Wireless LANs.
To configure LLDP-MED on a Cisco switch, you will need to first enable the protocol:
Once LLDP is enabled, you can then configure various parameters related to it. For example, you can specify what type of medium each port should use:
lldp med-type voice
lldp med-type video
lldp med-type data
You can also specify other parameters, such as the 802.1p priority or DSCP values to be used for each type of traffic. Consult the Cisco documentation for more information on all the available options.
The use of LLDP-MED has proven to be a useful tool for organizations that need to leverage link layer discovery protocol beyond networking basics. It allows them to easily detect and classify devices on the network, as well as configure voice and video applications with ease. With its versatility, scalability, compatibility and increased efficiency, it can help optimize the performance of any organization’s IT infrastructure. By understanding how LLDP-MED works and exploiting its various features, businesses can benefit from enhanced security measures, improved VoIP capabilities and better management of their networks.
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Unknown & Dynamic Creative Island iPhone 14:
Does an always-on display stay lit at all times?
Should We Protect the iPhone 14 Pro?
The iPhone 14 Pro is a stunning and pricey device. Personally, I don’t enjoy to disguise the iPhone’s natural beauty by covering it. I also want to have my investment protected in case I misplace it. I choose to use a clear case since it shows off the iPhone’s natural beauty. I suggest a package contract that offers several different types of security at a very affordable cost.
IPHONE ALLIGATOR CASE:
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